Booz Allen Hamilton
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp (Form: 10-Q, Received: 02/05/2018 07:00:36)



 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
___________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
 ___________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2017
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from             to             
Commission File No. 001-34972
 ___________________________________
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ___________________________________
Delaware
 
26-2634160
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
8283 Greensboro Drive, McLean, Virginia
 
22102
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(703) 902-5000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
(Former name, former address, and former fiscal year if changed since last report.)
___________________________________ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   ☒     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes   ☒     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
  
  
Accelerated filer
  
¨
Non-accelerated filer
  
¨   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
  
¨
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   ¨     No  





Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
 
Shares Outstanding
as of January 31, 2018
Class A Common Stock
145,062,716

Class B Non-Voting Common Stock

Class C Restricted Common Stock

Class E Special Voting Common Stock






TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
ITEM 1
 
 
 
ITEM 2
 
 
 
ITEM 3
 
 
 
ITEM 4
 
 
 
 
 
ITEM 1
 
 
 
ITEM 1A
 
 
 
ITEM 2
 
 
 
ITEM 3
 
 
 
ITEM 4
 
 
 
ITEM 5
 
 
 
ITEM 6






PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1 .
Financial Statements
BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
(Amounts in thousands, except
share and per share data)
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
289,495

 
$
217,417

Accounts receivable, net of allowance
1,045,300

 
991,810

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
90,365

 
85,253

Total current assets
1,425,160

 
1,294,480

Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation
166,498

 
139,167

Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization
265,612

 
271,880

Goodwill
1,580,929

 
1,571,190

Other long-term assets
101,097

 
96,388

Total assets
$
3,539,296

 
$
3,373,105

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Current portion of long-term debt
$
63,150

 
$
193,150

Accounts payable and other accrued expenses
487,253

 
504,117

Accrued compensation and benefits
276,151

 
263,816

Other current liabilities
129,258

 
140,318

Total current liabilities
955,812

 
1,101,401

Long-term debt, net of current portion
1,769,165

 
1,470,174

Other long-term liabilities
250,041

 
227,939

Total liabilities
2,975,018

 
2,799,514

Commitments and contingencies (Note 18)


 


Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, Class A — $0.01 par value — authorized, 600,000,000 shares; issued, 157,519,640 shares at December 31, 2017 and 155,901,485 shares at March 31, 2017; outstanding, 145,053,009 shares at December 31, 2017 and 148,887,708 shares at March 31, 2017
1,575

 
1,559

Treasury stock, at cost — 12,466,631 shares at December 31, 2017 and 7,013,777 shares at March 31, 2017
(381,003
)
 
(191,900
)
Additional paid-in capital
335,698

 
302,907

Retained earnings
622,580

 
478,102

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(14,572
)
 
(17,077
)
Total stockholders’ equity
564,278

 
573,591

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
3,539,296

 
$
3,373,105

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

1




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(UNAUDITED)
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Amounts in thousands,
except per share data)
 
(Amounts in thousands,
except per share data)
Revenue
$
1,499,914

 
$
1,404,638

 
$
4,535,569

 
$
4,222,213

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
712,255

 
652,236

 
2,111,702

 
1,967,258

Billable expenses
443,015

 
428,685

 
1,378,235

 
1,270,941

General and administrative expenses
209,856

 
201,183

 
613,399

 
585,340

Depreciation and amortization
16,701

 
14,410

 
48,196

 
43,588

Total operating costs and expenses
1,381,827

 
1,296,514

 
4,151,532

 
3,867,127

Operating income
118,087

 
108,124

 
384,037

 
355,086

Interest expense
(20,604
)
 
(14,176
)
 
(60,309
)
 
(46,757
)
Other income (expense), net
530

 
(1,333
)
 
1,854

 
(4,603
)
Income before income taxes
98,013

 
92,615

 
325,582

 
303,726

Income tax expense
28,240

 
37,025

 
105,356

 
117,489

Net income
$
69,773

 
$
55,590

 
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

Earnings per common share (Note 3):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.48

 
$
0.37

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.25

Diluted
$
0.47

 
$
0.37

 
$
1.47

 
$
1.23

Dividends declared per share
$
0.17

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.51

 
$
0.45


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

2





BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(UNAUDITED)
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Amounts in thousands)
 
(Amounts in thousands)
Net income
$
69,773

 
$
55,590

 
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

Other comprehensive income, net of tax:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges
2,052

 

 
1,418

 

Change in postretirement plan costs
363

 
481

 
1,087

 
1,395

Total other comprehensive income, net of tax
2,415

 
481

 
2,505

 
1,395

Comprehensive income
$
72,188

 
$
56,071

 
$
222,731

 
$
187,632


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

3




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING CORPORATION
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Amounts in thousands)
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net income
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
48,196

 
43,588

Stock-based compensation expense
16,797

 
16,034

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
(10,250
)
 
(15,560
)
Amortization of debt issuance costs and loss on extinguishment
4,003

 
13,459

Losses on dispositions

 
120

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(50,713
)
 
(10,204
)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
7,310

 
28,972

Other long-term assets
(3,435
)
 
(2,945
)
Accrued compensation and benefits
12,016

 
17,961

Accounts payable and other accrued expenses
(18,886
)
 
(28,238
)
Accrued interest
4,130

 
715

Other current liabilities
(5,663
)
 
18,082

Other long-term liabilities
23,189

 
14,821

Net cash provided by operating activities
246,920

 
283,042

Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of property and equipment
(63,067
)
 
(30,554
)
Payments for business acquisitions, net of cash acquired
(19,113
)
 
(851
)
Insurance proceeds received for damage to equipment
810

 
650

Net cash used in investing activities
(81,370
)
 
(30,755
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock
6,322

 
4,570

Stock option exercises
9,925

 
12,478

Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation

 
15,560

Repurchases of common stock
(199,010
)
 
(6,855
)
Cash dividends paid
(75,748
)
 
(67,311
)
Dividend equivalents paid to option holders
(890
)
 
(2,157
)
Repayment of debt
(262,363
)
 
(676,750
)
Proceeds from debt issuance
428,292

 
630,273

Net cash used in financing activities
(93,472
)
 
(90,192
)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents
72,078

 
162,095

Cash and cash equivalents––beginning of period
217,417

 
187,529

Cash and cash equivalents––end of period
$
289,495

 
$
349,624

Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
 
 
 
Cash paid during the period for:
 
 
 
Interest
$
48,044

 
$
37,288

Income taxes
$
114,782

 
$
66,536

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

4




BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON HOLDING CORPORATION
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Amounts in tables in thousands, except share and per share data or unless otherwise noted)
1. BUSINESS OVERVIEW
Organization
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation, including its wholly owned subsidiaries, or Holding, the Company or we, us, and our, was incorporated in Delaware in May 2008. The Company provides management and technology consulting, engineering, analytics, digital solutions, mission operations, and cyber expertise to U.S. and international governments, major corporations, and not-for-profit organizations. The Company reports operating results and financial data in one reportable segment. The Company is headquartered in McLean, Virginia, with approximately 24,700 employees as of December 31, 2017 .
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and should be read in conjunction with the information contained in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2017. The interim period unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are presented as described below. Certain information and disclosures normally required for annual financial statements have been condensed or omitted pursuant to GAAP and SEC rules and regulations. In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for fair presentation of the results of the interim period presented have been included. The Company’s fiscal year ends on March 31 and unless otherwise noted, references to fiscal year or fiscal are for fiscal years ended March 31. The results of operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full fiscal year.
The condensed consolidated financial statements and notes of the Company include its subsidiaries, and the joint ventures and partnerships over which the Company has a controlling financial interest. The Company uses the equity method to account for investments in entities that it does not control if it is otherwise able to exert significant influence over the entities' operating and financial policies.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Areas of the financial statements where estimates may have the most significant effect include contractual and regulatory reserves, valuation and lives of tangible and intangible assets, contingent consideration related to business acquisitions, impairment of long-lived assets, accrued liabilities, revenue recognition and costs to complete fixed-price contracts, bonus and other incentive compensation, stock-based compensation, reserves for tax benefits and valuation allowances on deferred tax assets, provisions for income taxes, postretirement obligations, certain deferred costs, collectability of receivables, and loss accruals for litigation. Actual results experienced by the Company may differ materially from management's estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
On December 22, 2017, the Staff of the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or SAB 118, which addresses situations where the accounting under Financial Accounting Standards Board, or the FASB, Accounting Standards Codification No. 740, Income Taxes , or ASC 740 is incomplete for certain income tax effects of Public Law No. 115-97, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the 2017 Tax Act, by the time an entity issues its financial statements for the fiscal period that includes the date the 2017 Tax Act was enacted.
Under ASC 740, entities are required to adjust current and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the effects of changes in tax laws or rates at their date of enactment. However, pursuant to SAB 118, if an entity does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed for certain income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act at the time an entity's financial statements are issued, an entity shall apply ASC 740 based on the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately prior to the enactment of the 2017 Tax Act. If the accounting for certain income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act is incomplete, but an entity can determine a reasonable estimate for those effects, an entity can record provisional amounts during a measurement period, which ends on the earlier of when an entity has obtained, prepared, and analyzed the information necessary to complete the accounting requirements of ASC 740 and December 22, 2018.
As discussed further in Note 10, the Company is a fiscal year-end taxpayer and is required to use a blended statutory federal tax rate, inclusive of the federal rate change enacted on December 22, 2017, to compute its effective tax rate for the

5




third quarter of fiscal 2018. These effects contributed to an overall decrease in the Company's effective tax rate. Based on ASC 740, comparative prior period amounts were not adjusted for the rate change effects of the 2017 Tax Act.
Further, for the third quarter of fiscal 2018, the Company did not report provisional amounts for deferred tax items, in part, because the 2017 Tax Act prompted the Company to consider a tax accounting method change under U.S. tax law associated with unbilled receivables. Moreover, as the 2017 Tax Act provides for significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, including implementing a territorial tax system, accelerating business asset expense, and changing or limiting certain tax deductions, such changes give rise to significant complexity to the scheduling of the reversal of other deductible and taxable temporary differences. There is judgment in scheduling each temporary difference, including but not limited to, the pattern and timing of the reversal of temporary differences, the magnitude of temporary differences, and the level of taxable income expected to be generated by future operations. Accordingly, the effects of the 2017 Tax Act could be material to the Company's fiscal year end 2018 consolidated financial statements, including a potential, one-time, non-cash expense or benefit in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018 arising from the analysis and remeasurement of the Company's deferred tax assets and liabilities.
In August 2017, the FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, 2017-12, Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. This guidance eliminates the requirement to separately measure and report hedge ineffectiveness and generally requires, for qualifying hedges, the entire change in the fair value of a hedging instrument to be presented in the same income statement line as the hedged item. Additionally, the guidance also expands an entity's ability to apply hedge accounting for nonfinancial and financial risk components, simplifies the hedge documentation and hedge effectiveness assessment requirements, and modifies certain disclosure requirements. ASU 2017-12 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07, Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost , which will change the presentation of net periodic benefit cost components on the condensed consolidated statement of operations. Under this guidance, the service cost component of net periodic benefit cost will continue to be presented in the same line items as other employee compensation costs, while the remaining components of net periodic benefit costs are to be presented outside operating income. ASU 2017-07 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and is to be applied retrospectively, with early adoption permitted. The Company is assessing the effect that the adoption of this guidance will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU, 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting , which simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions related to accounting for income taxes, forfeitures, statutory tax withholding requirements, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification of employee taxes paid on the statements of cash flows when an employer withholds shares for tax-withholding purposes. The Company adopted ASU 2016-09 in the first quarter of fiscal 2018. Certain of the simplification provisions were not applicable to the Company. The Company will continue its existing practice of estimating the number of forfeitures that are expected to occur rather than account for forfeitures when they occur as permitted under the new guidance.
The primary impacts of adopting ASU 2016-09 were those related to excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies. The new guidance requires that such amounts be recognized as income tax expense or benefit in the statement of operations, which could result in fluctuations in the Company's effective tax rate period over period depending on how many awards vest, or options are exercised, in a quarter. The guidance also requires that the cash flows associated with these transactions be presented with other income tax related cash flows in the operating activities section of the statement of cash flows. The Company recognized excess tax benefits, inclusive of the impact of the 2017 Tax Act, of $1.0 million and $10.3 million during the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , respectively, as a reduction to income tax expense in the condensed consolidated statement of operations. As discussed further in Note 10, the effect of adopting ASU 2016-09 resulted in a decrease in the Company's current period effective tax rate. As permitted, the Company adopted the guidance related to the presentation of excess tax benefits in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows on a prospective basis. Prior period amounts were not adjusted.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases , to increase transparency and comparability of accounting for lease transactions. The new standard requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on their balance sheet for all leases with a lease term of greater than 12 months. Lessor accounting is largely unchanged. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is assessing what effect the adoption of this standard may have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Codification No. 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) . Topic 606, as amended, will replace existing revenue recognition standards by outlining a single set of comprehensive principles for recognizing revenue. Amendments to Topic 606 have generally focused on promoting a more

6




consistent interpretation and application of the principles for recognizing revenue. The new guidance will also significantly expand the disclosure requirements for revenue arrangements. In July 2015, the FASB approved a one-year delay in the effective date of the standard, which will now be effective for the Company beginning on April 1, 2018 (i.e., beginning with the first quarter of fiscal 2019 financial statements). In August 2017, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 116, which conforms existing SEC staff guidance to the guidance in Topic 606, as amended. This conforming of accounting guidance is not expected to have a significant impact to our revenue recognition policies and related practices.
The Company anticipates adopting the new revenue standard retrospectively to all periods presented; however, the Company's ability to adopt using the full retrospective method is dependent on system and process readiness and the completion of its analysis of information necessary to recast its prior period financial statements and provide related disclosures. While the effort to modify accounting systems and business processes to enable full retrospective adoption is not transformative, the identified modifications are complex and are still being implemented and tested to ensure they can support changes to the Company's accounting practices. Because Topic 606 will also require expanded disclosures regarding the nature, timing and uncertainty of revenue and contract balances, including how and when the Company satisfies our performance obligations and the relationship between revenue recognized and changes in contract balances during a reporting period, the Company is continuing to evaluate these disclosure requirements and is incorporating the relevant collection of data in its systems and processes. The Company anticipates finalizing its systems and process modifications during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018.
A dedicated implementation team continues to make progress toward adopting and implementing the new standard. During the third quarter of fiscal 2018, the Company made substantial progress toward its overall assessment of Topic 606. The Company's comprehensive assessment has currently identified the following key findings:
The Company continues to expect insignificant changes related to recognizing revenue and earnings over time for long-term contracts as work progresses because of the continuous transfer of control to the customer, generally using an input measure (e.g., costs incurred) to reflect progress.
The determination of the customer and contract under Topic 606 is not expected to significantly change; however, revenue previously deferred for non-federal government arrangements that commenced without a signed, written contract may be recognized under Topic 606 when such arrangements are legally enforceable under applicable laws and regulations.
The Company has determined that in its federal government contract portfolio, there are certain periods of performance option exercises that will be evaluated as separate performance obligations or new arrangements for accounting purposes due to their distinct nature. For example, these situations may arise when options to renew the period of performance are not exercised within a relatively short period after execution of the base contract are thus evaluated to be separate and unrelated purchasing decisions by the customer, or when an option exercise is not the continuation of an integrated service, finished deliverable, or a single combined output.
The determination of contract transaction price associated with performance-based contracts (i.e., incentive or award-based contracts) will generally be consistent with the Company's current measurement practices for such contracts. Additionally, although the amount of revenue is not expected to change, the Company's estimates at completion for most fixed price contracts will now include unfunded components.
Contracts with significant up-front materials are expected to see an increase in the amount of revenue and costs recognized upon the date of the adoption, but the change in profitability is not expected to be significant.
While the Company is continuing to refine its process for quantifying the financial statement impacts associated with the full retrospective method, we do not expect the impact of adopting Topic 606 to be material to the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company anticipates disclosing those impacts and its final assessment of materiality in conjunction with reporting its results for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018. The Company will continue to evaluate the impact of Topic 606 and changes thereto on its accounting policies, internal controls (including the adoption of implementation-period controls), and business processes through the date of adoption.
Other accounting and reporting pronouncements issued after December 31, 2017 are not expected to have a material impact on the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.

7




3. EARNINGS PER SHARE
The Company computes basic and diluted earnings per share amounts based on net income for the periods presented. The Company uses the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period to calculate basic earnings per share, or EPS. Diluted EPS adjusts the weighted average number of shares outstanding to include the dilutive effect of outstanding common stock options and other stock-based awards.
The Company currently has outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock. Unvested Class A Restricted Common Stock holders are entitled to participate in non-forfeitable dividends or other distributions. These unvested restricted shares participated in the Company's dividends declared and were paid in the first, second, and third quarters of fiscal 2018 and 2017 . As such, EPS is calculated using the two-class method whereby earnings are reduced by distributed earnings as well as any available undistributed earnings allocable to holders of unvested restricted shares. A reconciliation of the income used to compute basic and diluted EPS for the periods presented are as follows:
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Earnings for basic computations (1)
$
69,148

 
$
54,978

 
$
218,300

 
$
184,245

Weighted-average common shares outstanding for basic computations
144,942,367

 
148,679,393

 
146,580,891

 
147,973,044

Earnings for diluted computations (1)
$
69,152

 
$
54,983

 
$
218,316

 
$
184,264

Dilutive stock options and restricted stock
1,628,250

 
1,927,866

 
1,866,357

 
2,170,807

Weighted-average common shares outstanding for diluted computations
146,570,617

 
150,607,259

 
148,447,248

 
150,143,851

Earnings per common share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.48

 
$
0.37

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.25

Diluted
$
0.47

 
$
0.37

 
$
1.47

 
$
1.23

(1) During the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , approximately 1.3 million and 1.7 million participating securities, respectively, were paid dividends totaling $0.2 million in each period. During the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , approximately 1.3 million and 1.7 million participating securities, respectively, were paid dividends totaling $0.6 million and $0.7 million , respectively. For the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , there were undistributed earnings of $0.4 million and $1.3 million , respectively, allocated to the participating class of securities in both basic and diluted EPS. For the three and nine months ended December 31, 2016 , there were undistributed earnings of $0.4 million and $1.3 million , respectively, allocated to the participating class of securities in both basic and diluted EPS. The allocated undistributed earnings and the dividends paid comprise the difference between net income presented on the condensed consolidated statements of operations and earnings for basic and diluted computations for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 .
The EPS calculation for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 excludes 0.4 million and 0.3 million options, respectively, as their impact was anti-dilutive. The EPS calculation for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2016  excludes  0.04 million  anti-dilutive options, as their impact was anti-dilutive.
4. ACQUISITION
On January 24, 2017, the Company acquired eGov Holdings, Inc., which we refer to as Aquilent. As a result of the transaction, Aquilent became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. Aquilent is an architect of IT solutions for the U.S. federal government. The acquisition further expands the Company's ability to blend its consulting heritage with advanced technical expertise.
The acquisition of Aquilent has been accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting, which requires the total acquisition consideration to be allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on an estimate of the acquisition date fair value, with the difference reflected in goodwill. During the first quarter of fiscal 2018, the Company finalized Aquilent's post-closing working capital.

8




The following table reflects the final determination of the total consideration transferred (including adjustments subsequent to closing):
Cash purchase price paid to Aquilent shareholders
$
250,000

Working capital and other closing adjustments
(1,729
)
Acquired cash on hand
2,998

Acquisition-related compensation expenses
(1,291
)
Acquisition-related contingent consideration
3,576

Total purchase consideration transferred at closing
$
253,554

As part of the acquisition, the Company and the selling shareholders of Aquilent agreed to jointly make an election under Section 338(h)(10) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, to treat the acquisition as an asset purchase for income tax purposes. The Company agreed to reimburse the selling stockholders for previously unrealized tax consequences on Aquilent's prior tax-return positions that became realized upon acquisition; and agreed to indemnify the selling stockholders for potential, incremental increases in income taxes and related costs as a result of the Section 338(h)(10) election. The indemnity was evaluated to be acquisition-related contingent consideration, which was valued at the acquisition date fair value of $3.6 million . The acquisition-related contingent consideration was calculated using probability-weighted cash flows and significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) as described under the fair value hierarchy of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements , or ASC 820.
The Company recorded the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their acquisition date fair value, with the difference between the fair value of the net assets acquired and the acquisition consideration reflected as goodwill. The following table represents the final allocation of fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed:
 
 
Current assets
$
15,809

Other tangible assets
1,144

Customer-relationship intangible assets
69,000

Goodwill
199,826

Current liabilities
(8,450
)
Tax liability
(13,554
)
Income tax uncertainty
(10,221
)
  Total purchase consideration transfer at closing
$
253,554

The identifiable customer-relationship intangible asset of  $69 million was valued using the excess earnings method discounted cash flow approach, incorporating Level 3 inputs as described under the fair value hierarchy of ASC 820. These unobservable inputs reflect the Company's own assumptions about which assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset on a non-recurring basis. This asset will be amortized over the estimated useful life of  12 years.
As part of the acquisition, the Company agreed to reimburse the selling stockholders for previously unrealized tax consequences on Aquilent's prior tax-return positions that become realized with the acquisition. Accordingly, the Company recognized a tax liability of $13.6 million . The obligation was relieved and paid during the first quarter of fiscal 2018. The Company continues to carry a related reserve of $10.2 million for income tax uncertainties created with the acquisition resulting from uncertainty in the sustainability of Aquilent's prior tax-return positions under examination with the relevant tax authorities.
The goodwill of  $199.8 million  was primarily attributed to the specialized workforce and the expected synergies between the Company and Aquilent. The majority of the goodwill is expected to be deductible for tax purposes.
There were no material acquisitions during the third quarter of fiscal 2018 or through the subsequent period to the issuance of the current financial statements.


9




5. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, NET OF ALLOWANCE
Accounts receivable, net of allowance consisted of the following:  
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
Current
 
 
 
Accounts receivable–billed
$
427,277

 
$
340,716

Accounts receivable–unbilled
619,405

 
651,094

Allowance for doubtful accounts
(1,382
)
 

Accounts receivable, net of allowance
1,045,300

 
991,810

Long-term
 
 
 
Accounts receivable–unbilled
59,367

 
59,913

Total accounts receivable, net
$
1,104,667

 
$
1,051,723

Unbilled amounts represent revenues for which billings have not been presented to customers at quarter-end or year-end. These amounts are usually billed and collected within one year. Long-term unbilled receivables not anticipated to be billed and collected within one year, which are primarily related to retainage, holdbacks, and long-term rate settlements to be billed at contract closeout, are included in other long-term assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. The Company recognized a (benefit) provision for doubtful accounts (including certain unbilled reserves) of $(0.2) million and $(0.1) million for the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively, and $2.9 million and $0.7 million for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
The primary financial instruments, other than derivatives, that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk are accounts receivable. The Company's primary customers are U.S. federal government agencies and prime contractors under contracts with the U.S. government. The Company continuously reviews its accounts receivable and records provisions for doubtful accounts as needed.
6. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND OTHER ACCRUED EXPENSES
Accounts payable and other accrued expenses consisted of the following:  
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
Vendor payables
$
256,905

 
$
268,630

Accrued expenses
230,348

 
235,487

Total accounts payable and other accrued expenses
$
487,253

 
$
504,117

Accrued expenses consisted primarily of the Company’s reserve related to potential cost disallowance in conjunction with government audits. Refer to Note 18 for further discussion of this reserve.
7. ACCRUED COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS
Accrued compensation and benefits consisted of the following:  
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
Bonus
$
60,470

 
$
77,765

Retirement
77,926

 
31,879

Vacation
112,638

 
124,486

Other
25,117

 
29,686

Total accrued compensation and benefits
$
276,151

 
$
263,816


10




8. DEBT
Debt consisted of the following:  
   
December 31, 2017
 
March 31, 2017
   
Interest
Rate
 
Outstanding
Balance
 
Interest
Rate
 
Outstanding
Balance
Term Loan A
3.57
%
 
$
1,109,063

 
2.98
%
 
$
1,153,425

Term Loan B
3.68
%
 
395,000

 
3.08
%
 
398,000

Revolving Credit Facility (ABR)
%
 

 
5.00
%
 
80,000

Revolving Credit Facility (LIBOR)
%
 

 
2.98
%
 
50,000

Senior Notes
5.13
%
 
350,000

 
%
 

Less: Unamortized debt issuance costs and discount on debt
 
 
(21,748
)
 
 
 
(18,101
)
Total
 
 
1,832,315

 
 
 
1,663,324

Less: Current portion of long-term debt
 
 
(63,150
)
 
 
 
(193,150
)
Long-term debt, net of current portion
 
 
$
1,769,165

 
 
 
$
1,470,174

Term Loans and Revolving Credit Facility
On February 6, 2017, Booz Allen Hamilton, Booz Allen Hamilton Investor Corporation, or Investor, and certain wholly-owned subsidiaries of Booz Allen Hamilton entered into the Fourth Amendment, or the Fourth Amendment, to the Credit Agreement, or the Credit Agreement, dated as of July 31, 2012, among Booz Allen Hamilton, Investor, certain wholly owned subsidiaries of Booz Allen Hamilton and Bank of America, N.A., as Administrative Agent, Collateral Agent and Issuing Lender (as previously amended by the First Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated as of August 16, 2013, the Second Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated as of May 7, 2014, and the Third Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016). Pursuant to the Fourth Amendment, the Company reduced the interest rate spread applicable to Term Loan B. The interest rate spread applicable to Term Loan A remained unchanged.
As of  December 31, 2017 , the Credit Agreement, as amended, provided the Company with a  $1,109.1 million  Term Loan A ("Term Loan A"), a $395.0 million  Term Loan B ("Term Loan B" and, together with Term Loan A, the "Term Loans"), and a  $500.0 million  revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility", and together with the Term Loans, the "Secured Credit Facility”), with a sublimit for letters of credit of  $100.0 million . As of December 31, 2017 , the maturity date of Term Loan A and the termination date for the Revolving Credit Facility was June 30, 2021 and the maturity date of Term Loan B was June 30, 2023. Booz Allen Hamilton’s obligations and the guarantors’ guarantees under the Credit Agreement, as amended, are secured by a first priority lien on substantially all of the assets (including capital stock of subsidiaries) of Booz Allen Hamilton, Investor, and the subsidiary guarantors, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the Credit Agreement, as amended, and related documentation. Subject to specified conditions, without the consent of the then-existing lenders (but subject to the receipt of commitments), the Term Loans or Revolving Credit Facility may be expanded (or a new term loan facility or revolving credit facility added to the existing facilities) by up to (i) $400 million plus (ii) the aggregate principal amount under which pro forma consolidated net secured leverage remains less than or equal to 3.50 :1.00.
At Booz Allen Hamilton’s option, borrowings under the Secured Credit Facility bear interest based either on LIBOR (adjusted for maximum reserves, and subject to a floor of zero ) for the applicable interest period or a base rate (equal to the highest of (x) the administrative agent’s prime corporate rate, (y) the overnight federal funds rate plus 0.50% , and (z) three-month LIBOR (adjusted for maximum reserves, and subject to a floor of zero ) plus 1.00% ), in each case plus an applicable margin, payable at the end of the applicable interest period and in any event at least quarterly. The applicable margin for Term Loan B is 2.25% for LIBOR loans and 1.25% for base rate loans. The applicable margin for Term Loan A and borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility ranges from 1.50% to 2.25% for LIBOR loans and 0.50% to 1.25% for base rate loans, in each case based on Booz Allen Hamilton’s consolidated total net leverage ratio. Unused commitments under the Revolving Credit Facility are subject to a quarterly fee ranging from 0.30% to 0.40% based on Booz Allen Hamilton’s consolidated total net leverage ratio.
Booz Allen Hamilton occasionally borrows under the Revolving Credit Facility in anticipation of cash demands. During the first, second and third quarters of fiscal 2018 , Booz Allen Hamilton accessed a total of $85.0 million of the $500.0 million Revolving Credit Facility. As of December 31, 2017 , there were no amounts outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility. As of March 31, 2017 , there was $130.0 million outstanding under the Revolving Credit Facility.

11




The Credit Agreement, as amended, requires quarterly principal payments of 1.25% of the stated principal amount of Term Loan A until maturity, and quarterly principal payments of 0.25% of the stated principal amount of Term Loan B until maturity.
The Credit Agreement, as amended, contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants. The negative covenants include limitations on the following, in each case subject to certain exceptions: (i) indebtedness and liens, (ii) mergers, consolidations or amalgamations, liquidations, wind-ups or dissolutions, and disposition of all or substantially all assets; (iii) dispositions of property; (iv) restricted payments; (v) investments; (vi) transactions with affiliates; (vii) sale and lease back transactions; (viii) change in fiscal periods; (ix) negative pledges; (x) restrictive agreements; (xi) line of business; and (xii) speculative hedging. The events of default include the following, in each case subject to certain exceptions: (a) failure to make required payments under the Secured Credit Facility; (b) material breaches of representations or warranties under the Secured Credit Facility; (c) failure to observe covenants or agreements under the Secured Credit Facility; (d) failure to pay or default under certain other material indebtedness; (e) bankruptcy or insolvency; (f) certain Employee Retirement Income Security Act, or ERISA events; (g) certain material judgments; (h) actual or asserted invalidity of the Guarantee and Collateral Agreements or the other security documents or failure of the guarantees or perfected liens thereunder; and (i) a change of control. In addition, Booz Allen Hamilton is required to meet certain financial covenants at each quarter end, namely Consolidated Net Total Leverage and Consolidated Net Interest Coverage Ratios.
Senior Notes
On April 25, 2017, Booz Allen Hamilton issued $350 million aggregate principal amount of its 5.125% Senior Notes, or the Senior Notes, under an Indenture, dated as of April 25, 2017, among Booz Allen Hamilton, certain subsidiaries of Booz Allen Hamilton, as guarantors, or the Subsidiary Guarantors, and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, or the Trustee, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, dated as of April 25, 2017, among Booz Allen Hamilton, the Subsidiary Guarantors and the Trustee. Each of Booz Allen Hamilton's existing and future domestic restricted subsidiaries that guarantee its obligations under the Secured Credit Facility and certain other indebtedness will guarantee the Senior Notes on a senior unsecured basis. Interest is payable semi-annually on May 1 and November 1 of each year, beginning on November 1, 2017, and principal is due at maturity on May 1, 2025. In connection with the Senior Notes, the Company recognized  $6.7 million  of issuance costs, which were recorded as an offset against the carrying value of debt and will be amortized to interest expense over the term of the Senior Notes.
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , Booz Allen Hamilton was in compliance with all financial covenants associated with its debt and debt-like instruments.
Interest on debt and debt-like instruments consisted of the following:
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In thousands)
 
(In thousands)
Term Loan A Interest Expense
$
9,198

 
$
7,585

 
$
27,369

 
$
20,344

Term Loan B Interest Expense
3,493

 
3,386

 
10,284

 
15,349

Interest on Revolving Credit Facility
43

 

 
242

 
303

Senior Notes Interest Expense
4,485

 

 
12,258

 

Deferred Payment Obligation Interest (1)
2,000

 
2,000

 
6,022

 
6,007

Amortization of Debt Issuance Cost (DIC) and Original Issue Discount (OID) (2)
1,370

 
1,188

 
4,003

 
4,584

Other
15

 
17

 
131

 
170

Total Interest Expense
$
20,604

 
$
14,176

 
$
60,309

 
$
46,757

(1) Interest payments on the deferred payment obligation are made twice a year in January and July.
(2) DIC and OID on the Term Loans and Senior Notes are recorded as a reduction of long term debt in the condensed consolidated balance sheet and are amortized ratably over the life of the related debt using the effective rate method. DIC on the Revolving Credit Facility is recorded as a long term asset on the consolidated balance sheet and amortized ratably over the term of the Revolving Credit Facility.


12




9. DERIVATIVES
The Company utilizes derivative financial instruments to manage interest rate risk related to its variable rate term loans. The Company’s objectives in using these interest rate derivatives, which were designated as cash flow hedges, are to manage its exposure to interest rate movements and reduce volatility to interest expense. During the first quarter of fiscal 2018, the Company entered into several forward starting floating-to-fixed interest rate swap agreements with multiple financial institutions with a start date of April 30, 2018. The aggregate notional amount of these interest rate swap agreements was $450 million as of December 31, 2017 . The swaps have staggered maturities, ranging from June 30, 2021 to June 30, 2022. These swaps mature within the last tranche of the Company's floating rate debt (June 30, 2023).
The floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps involve the exchange of variable interest amounts from a counterparty for the Company making fixed-rate interest payments over the life of the agreements without exchange of the underlying notional amount and effectively converting a portion of the variable rate debt into fixed interest rate debt.
Derivative instruments are recorded in the condensed consolidated balance sheet at estimated fair value. As of December 31, 2017 , $2.7 million and $0.4 million were classified as other long term assets and other current liabilities, respectively, on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. For interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges, the effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives is recorded in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, or AOCI, net of taxes, and is subsequently reclassified into interest expense in the period that the hedged forecasted interest payments are made on the Company's variable-rate debt. For the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , a $2.1 million and $1.4 million gain have been recognized in AOCI, respectively, and there were no amounts reclassified into interest expense. The ineffective portion of the change in fair value of the derivatives is recognized directly in earnings. As of the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , there was no ineffectiveness recognized in earnings.
Over the next 12 months, the Company estimates that $0.4 million will be reclassified as an increase to interest expense. Cash flows associated with periodic settlements of interest rate swaps will be classified as operating activities in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows.
The Company is subject to counterparty risk in connection with its interest rate swap derivative contracts. Credit risk related to a derivative financial instrument represents the possibility that the counterparty will not fulfill the terms of the contract. The Company mitigates this credit risk by entering into agreements with credit-worthy counterparties and regularly reviews its credit exposure and the creditworthiness of the counterparties.

10. INCOME TAXES
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Act was enacted into law. The 2017 Tax Act provides for significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, including lowering the federal corporate tax rate, implementing a territorial tax system, accelerating business asset expensing, and changing or limiting certain tax deductions.
ASC 740 requires the Company to recognize the effect of the 2017 Tax Act on the date of enactment. The 2017 Tax Act reduces the federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. The tax rate change is administratively effective at the beginning of the Company's 2018 fiscal year using a blended statutory federal rate for the fiscal period based on the number of days in the periods before and after the effective date of the change. The lower 21% tax rate will be the federal statutory rate used for fiscal periods thereafter. The Company's blended statutory tax rate for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 was 31.5% . The lower federal corporate tax rate will also require the Company to remeasure its deferred tax assets and liabilities as well as reassess the realizability of those deferred items.
The Company’s effective income tax rates were 28.8% and 32.4% for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , respectively, as compared to 40.0% and 38.7% for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2016 , respectively. The effective tax rates for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 include the effects of the statutory federal rate provisions of the 2017 Tax Act and exclude any provisional amounts for deferred tax items. As noted in Note 2, the 2017 Tax Act prompted the Company to consider a tax accounting method change under U.S. tax law associated with unbilled receivables. Moreover, as elaborated in Note 2, the 2017 Tax Act provides for significant changes to the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and such changes give rise to significant complexity to the scheduling of the reversal of other deductible and taxable temporary differences. The Company expects to reflect the provisional impact of the 2017 Tax Act on changes to deferred tax items in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018.
The decrease in the effective tax rates as compared to the same periods last fiscal year was primarily due to the tax rate benefit of the 2017 Tax Act and the Company's adoption of ASU 2016-09 in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 as discussed in Note 2. The three and nine months effective tax rates of 28.8% and 32.4% differ from the federal statutory rate of 31.5% primarily due to the inclusion of state income taxes and permanent rate differences, partially offset by discrete tax items.

13




The Company is currently contesting tax assessments from the District of Columbia Office of Tax and Revenue for fiscal years 2013 through 2015 at various stages of applicable administrative and judicial processes, with a combined amount at issue of approximately $10.8 million , net of associated tax benefits. The Company has taken similar tax positions with respect to subsequent fiscal years. As of December 31, 2017 , the Company does not maintain reserves for any uncertain tax positions related to the contested tax benefits and does not believe the resolution of these matters will have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

11. OTHER LONG-TERM LIABILITIES
Other long-term liabilities consisted of the following:  
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
Deferred rent
$
82,459

 
$
63,854

Postretirement benefit obligations
127,193

 
123,492

Other (1)
40,389

 
40,593

Total other long-term liabilities
$
250,041

 
$
227,939


(1) Balances at December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 include the Company's long-term disability obligation of $22.5 million as well as contingent consideration of $3.6 million related to the Company's acquisition as discussed in Note 4.

12. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS
Defined Contribution Plan
The Company sponsors the Employees’ Capital Accumulation Plan, or ECAP, which is a qualified defined contribution plan that covers eligible U.S. and international employees. ECAP provides for distributions, subject to certain vesting provisions, to participants by reason of retirement, death, disability, or termination of employment. Effective April 1, 2014, the Company transitioned from a discretionary employer contribution to an annual matching contribution of up to 6% of eligible annual income as determined by the Code for the ECAP. Total expense recognized under ECAP was $30.8 million and $28.1 million for the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively, and  $92.7 million and $84.8 million for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively. The Company-paid contributions were $15.4 million and $13.7 million for the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively, and  $46.5 million and $44.5 million for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
Defined Benefit Plan and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
The Company provides postretirement healthcare benefits to former officers under a medical indemnity insurance plan, with premiums paid by the Company. This plan is referred to as the Officer Medical Plan. The Company also established a non-qualified defined benefit plan for all officers in May 1995, or the Retired Officers' Bonus Plan, which pays a lump-sum amount of $10,000 per year of service as an officer, provided the officer meets retirement vesting requirements. The Company also provides a fixed annual allowance after retirement to cover financial counseling and other expenses. The Retired Officers' Bonus Plan is not salary related, but rather is based primarily on years of service. During fiscal 2017, the Company adopted a new plan which will provide for a one-time, lump sum retirement payment of one month’s salary when a vice-president retires from the Company, effective April 1, 2017. This is referred to as the Retired Vice-President Bonus Plan. Additionally, the Company offers medical and dental benefits to inactive employees (and their eligible dependents) on long-term disability.
The components of net postretirement medical expense for the Officer Medical Plan were as follows:  
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Service cost
$
1,116

 
$
1,213

 
$
3,348

 
$
3,638

Interest cost
1,252

 
1,196

 
3,756

 
3,587

Net actuarial loss
568

 
762

 
1,703

 
2,287

Total postretirement medical expense
$
2,936

 
$
3,171

 
$
8,807

 
$
9,512


14




As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , the unfunded status of the post-retirement medical plan was $122.6 million and $118.1 million , respectively, which is included in other long-term liabilities in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.    
13. ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
All amounts recorded in other comprehensive loss are related to the Company's post-retirement plans and interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges. The following table shows the changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2017
Nine Months Ended December 31, 2017
 
Post-retirement plans
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges
Totals
Post-retirement plans
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges
Totals
Beginning of period
$
(16,353
)
$
(634
)
$
(16,987
)
$
(17,077
)
$

$
(17,077
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications (1)

2,052

2,052


1,418

1,418

Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss
363


363

1,087


1,087

Net current-period other comprehensive income (loss)
363

2,052

2,415

1,087

1,418

2,505

End of period
$
(15,990
)
$
1,418

$
(14,572
)
$
(15,990
)
$
1,418

$
(14,572
)
(1) Changes in other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassification for derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are recorded net of tax expenses of $1.3 million and $0.9 million for three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , respectively.
 
Three Months Ended December 31, 2016
Nine Months Ended December 31, 2016
 
Post-retirement plans
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges
Totals
Post-retirement plans
Derivatives designated as cash flow hedges
Totals
Beginning of period
$
(18,699
)
$

$
(18,699
)
$
(19,613
)
$

$
(19,613
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications






Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss
481


481

1,395


1,395

Net current-period other comprehensive income (loss)
481


481

1,395


1,395

End of period
$
(18,218
)
$

$
(18,218
)
$
(18,218
)
$

$
(18,218
)

The following table presents the reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive loss to net income:
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Amortization of net actuarial loss included in net periodic benefit cost (See Note 12)
$
597

 
$
762

 
$
1,790

 
$
2,287

Tax benefit
(234
)
 
(281
)
 
(703
)
 
(892
)
Net of tax
$
363

 
$
481

 
$
1,087

 
$
1,395



15




14. STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Common Stock
The common stock shares activity consisted of the following:  
 
Class A
Common Stock
 
Treasury
Stock
Balance at March 31, 2016
153,391,058

 
5,398,596

Issuance of common stock
578,932

 

Stock options exercised
1,931,495

 

Repurchase of common stock (1)

 
1,615,181

Balance at March 31, 2017
155,901,485

 
7,013,777

Issuance of common stock
595,498

 

Stock options exercised
1,022,657

 

Repurchase of common stock (2)

 
5,452,854

Balance at December 31, 2017
157,519,640

 
12,466,631

(1)
During fiscal 2017, the Company purchased 1.3 million shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock in a series of open market transactions for $46.4 million . Additionally, the Company repurchased shares during fiscal 2017 to cover the minimum statutory withholding taxes on restricted stock awards and restricted stock units that vested on March 31, 2017. The Company also repurchased shares to cover the minimum statutory withholding taxes on restricted stock for departing officers, as they are no longer subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture.
(2)
During fiscal 2018, the Company purchased 5.3 million shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock in a series of open market transactions for $184.5 million . Additionally, the Company repurchased shares during the first quarter of fiscal 2018 to cover the minimum statutory withholding taxes on restricted stock awards and restricted stock units that vested on June 30, 2017.
For the quarterly offering period that closed on December 31, 2017 , 63,353 Class A Common Stock shares were purchased by employees under the Company's Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP. Since the program's inception, 2,119,003 shares have been purchased by employees.

15. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations:  
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Cost of revenue
$
2,090

 
$
1,535

 
$
5,396

 
$
4,233

General and administrative expenses
3,112

 
3,918

 
11,401

 
11,801

Total
$
5,202

 
$
5,453

 
$
16,797

 
$
16,034



16




The following table summarizes the total stock-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations by the following types of equity awards:    
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Equity Incentive Plan Options
$
422

 
$
467

 
$
1,391

 
$
2,031

Class A Restricted Common Stock
4,780

 
4,986

 
15,406

 
14,003

Total
$
5,202

 
$
5,453

 
$
16,797

 
$
16,034


As of December 31, 2017 , there was $23.0 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based compensation agreements. The unrecognized compensation cost as of December 31, 2017 is expected to be fully amortized over the next 4.25 years. Absent the effect of accelerating stock compensation cost for any departures of employees who may continue to vest in their equity awards, the following table summarizes the unrecognized compensation cost and the weighted-average period the cost is expected to be amortized.
 
 
December 31, 2017
 
 
Unrecognized Compensation Cost
 
Weighted Average Remaining Period to be Recognized (in years)
Equity Incentive Plan Options
 
$
2,897

 
3.78
Class A Restricted Common Stock
 
20,120

 
2.03
Total
 
$
23,017

 
 
Equity Incentive Plan
As of December 31, 2017 , there were 3,024,470 EIP options outstanding, of which 848,286 were unvested.
Grants of restricted stock units and Class A Restricted Common Stock
On November 1, 2017, the Board of Directors granted  52,732  restricted stock units to certain newly hired individuals and current vice presidents.  The aggregate value of this award was estimated at  $2.0 million  based on the stock price of  $37.77  on the grant date.

16. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
The accounting standard for fair value measurements establishes a three-tier value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows: observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets (Level 1); inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly (Level 2); and unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which requires the Company to develop its own assumptions (Level 3).

17




A financial instrument's level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The financial instruments measured at fair value in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets consist of the following:
 
Recurring Fair Value Measurements
as of December 31, 2017
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Cash and cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
57,913

 
$

 
$

 
$
57,913

Money market funds (1)
206,379

 
25,203

 

 
231,582

Total cash and cash equivalents
$
264,292

 
$
25,203

 
$

 
$
289,495

Other Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derivative instruments (3)
$

 
$
2,690

 
$

 
$
2,690

Total Other Assets
$

 
$
2,690

 
$

 
$
2,690

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contingent consideration liability (2)
$

 
$

 
$
3,576

 
$
3,576

Current derivative instruments (3)

 
354

 

 
354

Long-term derivative instruments (3)

 

 

 

Total Liabilities
$

 
$
354

 
$
3,576

 
$
3,930

 
Recurring Fair Value Measurements
as of March 31, 2017
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
 
Total
Cash and cash equivalents:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
59,825

 
$

 
$

 
$
59,825

Money market funds (1)

 
157,592

 

 
157,592

Total cash and cash equivalents
$
59,825

 
$
157,592

 
$

 
$
217,417

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contingent consideration liability (2)

 

 
3,576

 
3,576

Total Liabilities
$

 
$

 
$
3,576

 
$
3,576

(1)    Level 2 cash and cash equivalents are invested in money market funds that are intended to maintain a stable net asset value of $1.00 per share by investing in liquid, high quality U.S. dollar-denominated money market instruments. Therefore, the fair value approximates the carrying value. Depending on our short-term liquidity needs, we make regular transfers between money market funds and other cash equivalents.
(2) As discussed in Note 4, the Company recognized a contingent consideration liability in connection with the acquisition of Aquilent. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017, the estimated fair value of the contingent consideration liability was $3.6 million and was valued using probability-weighted cash flows, which is based on the use of Level 3 fair value measurement inputs. The liability is recorded in other long-term liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet.
(3) The Company’s interest rate swaps are considered over-the-counter derivatives and fair value is estimated based on the present value of future cash flows using a model-derived valuation that uses Level 2 observable inputs such as interest rate yield curves. See Note 9 for further discussion on the Company’s derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges.
The fair value of the Company's debt, as well as the Senior Notes, approximates their carrying value at December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 . The fair value of debt is determined using quoted prices or other market information obtained from recent trading activity of each debt tranche in markets that are not active (Level 2 inputs). The fair value is corroborated by prices derived from the interest rate spreads of recently completed leveraged loan transactions of a similar credit profile, industry, and terms to that of the Company. The fair value of the Senior Notes is determined using quoted prices or other market information obtained from recent trading activity in the high-yield bond market (Level 2 inputs).

18




17. RELATED-PARTY TRANSACTIONS
In March 2017, the Company supported the formation of the Booz Allen Foundation, a nonprofit corporation organized and operated exclusively for charitable, scientific and educational purposes within the meaning of Section 501(c)(3) of the Code. The Company is the sole member of the foundation, which gives it the authority to appoint two of five of the Booz Allen Foundation's directors and consent rights regarding certain extraordinary corporate actions approved by the board of directors. The Company has made a binding and irrevocable pledge of $5.0 million to the Booz Allen Foundation and recorded the pledge obligation in other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet of the Company in March 2017. As of December 31, 2017 , $1.7 million of the pledge has been paid to the Booz Allen Foundation and is classified as operating activities in the condensed consolidated statement of cash flows.

18. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Letters of Credit and Third-Party Guarantees
As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , the Company was contingently liable under open standby letters of credit and bank guarantees issued by our banks in favor of third parties that totaled $7.3 million and $8.6 million , respectively. These letters of credit and bank guarantees primarily support insurance and bid and performance obligations. At December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , approximately $1.4 million and $1.7 million , respectively, of these instruments reduce the available borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility. The remaining amounts under these instruments are guaranteed under a separate $15.0 million facility established in fiscal 2015 of which $9.1 million and $3.1 million was available to the Company at December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , respectively.
Government Contracting Matters
For each of the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , approximately 97% of the Company's revenue was generated from contracts where the end user was an agency or department of the U.S. government, including contracts where the Company performed either as a prime contractor or subcontractor, and regardless of the geographic location in which the work was performed. U.S. government contracts and subcontracts are subject to extensive legal and regulatory requirements. From time to time and in the ordinary course of business, agencies of the U.S. government audit our contract costs and conduct inquiries and investigations of our business practices with respect to government contracts to determine whether the Company’s operations are conducted in accordance with these requirements and the terms of the relevant contracts. U.S. government agencies, including the Defense Contract Audit Agency, routinely audit our contract costs, including allocated indirect costs for compliance with the Cost Accounting Standards and the Federal Acquisition Regulation. These agencies also conduct reviews and investigations and make inquiries regarding our accounting and other systems in connection with our performance and business practices with respect to our government contracts and subcontracts. U.S. government audits, inquiries, or investigations of the Company, whether related to the Company's U.S. government contracts or subcontracts or conducted for other reasons, could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including withholding of payments, suspension of payments, repayments, fines, or penalties being imposed upon the Company, or could lead to suspension or debarment from future U.S. government contracting. Management believes it has recorded the appropriate provision for any audit, inquiry, or investigation of which it is aware. Management believes it has recorded the appropriate provision for the estimated losses that may be experienced from any such reductions and/or penalties. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , the Company has recorded a liability of approximately $171.7 million and $175.7 million , respectively, for its current best estimate of amounts to be refunded to customers for potential adjustments from audits or reviews of contract costs incurred subsequent to fiscal year 2011, and for contracts not yet closed that are impacted by settlement of audits or reviews of contract costs incurred in prior fiscal years.
Litigation
The Company is involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters, relationships with clients and contractors, intellectual property disputes, and other business matters. These legal proceedings seek various remedies, including claims for monetary damages in varying amounts, none of which are considered material, or are unspecified as to amount. Although the outcome of any such matter is inherently uncertain and may be materially adverse, based on current information, management does not expect any of the currently ongoing audits, reviews, investigations, or litigation to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. As of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 , there were no material amounts accrued in the condensed consolidated financial statements related to these proceedings.

19




Six former officers and stockholders who had departed the company prior to the acquisition of the Company by the Carlyle Group (the "Acquisition") have filed a total of nine suits in various jurisdictions, with original filing dates ranging from July 3, 2008 through December 15, 2009, against us and certain of our current and former directors and officers. Three of these suits were amended on July 2, 2010 and then further amended into one consolidated complaint on September 7, 2010. Another two of the original nine suits were consolidated into one complaint on September 24, 2014. Each of the suits arises out of the Acquisition and alleges that the former stockholders are entitled to certain payments that they would have received if they had held their stock at the time of the Acquisition. Some of the suits also allege that the Acquisition price paid to stockholders was insufficient. The various suits assert claims for breach of contract, tortious interference with contract, breach of fiduciary duty, civil Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO, violations, violations of the ERISA, and/or securities and common law fraud. Three of these suits have been dismissed with all appeals exhausted. The two suits that were consolidated into one action on September 24, 2014 were settled on April 16, 2015. One of the remaining suits has been dismissed by the United States District Court for the Southern District of California and such dismissal was upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. The plaintiff in this suit subsequently filed a Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the United States Supreme Court, which was denied by the United States Supreme Court on January 9, 2017. The other three remaining suits that were previously consolidated on September 7, 2010 have been dismissed by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and were on appeal before the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. On December 15, 2016, hearings relating to the appeal were held before the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. On July 13, 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled on the case and affirmed the ruling of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, except for one plaintiff’s securities fraud claim. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit remanded the case to the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York to give the plaintiff leave to file another amended complaint to attempt to plead a securities fraud claim. As of December 31, 2017 , the aggregate alleged damages that will be sought in the remaining suit is unknown. As of December 31, 2017 , although the outcome of any of these cases is inherently uncertain and may be materially adverse, based on current information, management does not expect them to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
On June 7, 2017, Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. was informed that the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) is conducting a civil and criminal investigation of the Company. In connection with the investigation, the DOJ has requested information from the Company relating to certain elements of the Company’s cost accounting and indirect cost charging practices with the U.S. government. Since learning of the investigation, the Company has engaged a law firm experienced in these matters to represent the Company in connection with this matter and respond to the government's requests. As is commonly the case with this type of matter, the Company has also been in contact with other regulatory agencies and bodies, including the Securities and Exchange Commission, which notified the Company that it is conducting an investigation that the Company believes relates to matters that are also the subject of the DOJ's investigation. The Company may receive additional regulatory or governmental inquiries related to the matters that are the subject of the DOJ's investigation. In accordance with the Company's practice, the company is cooperating with all relevant government parties. The total cost associated with these matters will depend on many factors, including the duration of these matters and any related findings. At this stage, the Company is not able to reasonably estimate the expected amount or range of cost or any loss associated with these matters.
On June 19, 2017, a purported stockholder of the Company filed a putative class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia styled Langley v. Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp., No. 17-cv-00696 naming the Company, its Chief Executive Officer and its Chief Financial Officer as defendants purportedly on behalf of all purchasers of the Company’s securities from May 19, 2016 through June 15, 2017. On September 5, 2017, the court named two lead plaintiffs and on October 20, 2017, the lead plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint. The complaint asserts claims under Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder, alleging misrepresentations or omissions by the Company purporting to relate to matters that are the subject of the DOJ investigation described above. The plaintiffs seek to recover from the Company and the individual defendants an unspecified amount of damages. The Company believes the suit lacks merit and intends to defend against the lawsuit. Motions to dismiss were argued on January 12, 2018, and the court took the matters under advisement. At this stage of the lawsuit, the Company is not able to reasonably estimate the expected amount or range of cost or any loss associated with the lawsuit.
On November 13, 2017, a Verified Shareholder Derivative Compliant was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware styled Celine Thum v. Rozanski et. al., C.A. No. 17-cv-01638, naming the Company as a nominal defendant and numerous current and former officers and directors as defendants. The complaint asserts claims for breach of fiduciary duties, unjust enrichment, waste of corporate assets, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and violations of Sections 14(a), 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, purportedly relating to matters that are the subject of the DOJ investigation described above. The parties have stipulated to a stay of the proceedings pending the outcome of the securities litigation (described above), which the court so ordered on January 24, 2018. At this stage of the lawsuit, the Company is not able to reasonably estimate the expected amount or range of cost or any loss associated with the lawsuit.

20




Item 2.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis is intended to help the reader understand our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity and capital resources. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or Quarterly Report.
The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity and capital resources, and other non-historical statements in this discussion are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 22, 2017, or Annual Report, and under Part II, “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and “— Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements” of this Quarterly Report. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Our fiscal year ends March 31 and, unless otherwise noted, references to years or fiscal are for fiscal years ended March 31. See “—Results of Operations.”
Overview
We are a leading provider of management and technology consulting, engineering, analytics, digital solutions, mission operations, and cyber expertise to U.S. and international governments, major corporations, and not-for-profit organizations. Our ability to deliver value to our clients has always been, and continues to be, a product of the strong character, deep expertise and tremendous passion of our people. Our talent base of approximately 24,700 employees endeavor to solve problems that matter by making clients' missions their own, combining decades of consulting and domain expertise with functional expertise in areas such as analytics, digital solutions, engineering, and cyber, all fostered by a culture of innovation that extends to all reaches of the company.
    
Through our dedication to our clients' missions, and a commitment to evolving our business to address clients' needs, we have longstanding and deep relationships with our clients, some more than 75 years. We support critical missions for a diverse base of federal government clients, including nearly all of the U.S. government's cabinet-level departments, as well as increasingly for top-tier commercial and international clients. We support these clients by helping them tackle their most complex and pressing challenges such as protecting soldiers in combat and supporting their families, advancing cyber capabilities, keeping our national infrastructure secure, enabling and enhancing digital services, transforming the healthcare system, and improving government efficiency to achieve better outcomes. Our U.S. commercial clients are primarily in the financial services, healthcare and life sciences, energy, high-tech manufacturing, retail, and automotive industries. Our international clients are primarily in the Middle East, along with a growing presence in Southeast Asia.

Financial and Other Highlights

During the third quarter of fiscal 2018, the Company generated year over year revenue growth driven by strong demand from clients, while increasing our headcount, growing backlog to a near record level, and delivering improved earnings.
Revenue increased 6.8% from the three months ended December 31, 2016 to the three months ended December 31, 2017 and increased 7.4% from the nine months ended December 31, 2016 to the nine months ended December 31, 2017 . The revenue increases in both the three and nine month periods ended December 31, 2017 in comparison to the respective prior year periods were primarily driven by continued strength in client demand, which led to increased client staff headcount, and an increase in client staff labor. Revenue for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 also benefited from higher billable expenses as compared to the prior year period.
Operating income increased 9.2% to $118.1 million in the three months ended December 31, 2017 from $108.1 million in the three months ended December 31, 2016 , while operating margin increased to 7.9% from 7.7% in the comparable period. Operating income increased 8.2% to $384.0 million in the nine months ended December 31, 2017 from $355.1 million in the nine months ended December 31, 2016 , while operating margin increased to 8.5% from 8.4% in the comparable period. The increase in operating income was primarily driven by the same factors driving revenue as well as improved contract profitability across the enterprise. The growth in operating income for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 was partially offset by increased spending in support of the business operations, on-boarding and deployment of consulting staff headcount. The Company also incurred incremental legal costs during the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 in response to the U.S. Department of Justice investigation and matters which purport to relate to the investigation, a portion of which was offset by the receipt of insurance reimbursements. We expect to incur additional costs in the future. Based on the information currently available, the Company is not able to reasonably estimate the expected long-term incremental legal costs or amounts that may be reimbursed associated with this investigation and these related matters.

21





Non-GAAP Measures
We publicly disclose certain non-GAAP financial measurements, including Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, or Adjusted Diluted EPS, because management uses these measures for business planning purposes, including to manage our business against internal projected results of operations and measure our performance. We view Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted EPS as measures of our core operating business, which exclude the impact of the items detailed below, as these items are generally not operational in nature. These non-GAAP measures also provide another basis for comparing period to period results by excluding potential differences caused by non-operational and unusual or non-recurring items. In addition, we use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses because it provides management useful information about the Company's operating performance by excluding the impact of costs that are not indicative of the level of productivity of our consulting staff headcount and our overall direct labor, which management believes provides useful information to our investors about our core operations. We also utilize and discuss Free Cash Flow, because management uses this measure for business planning purposes, measuring the cash generating ability of the operating business, and measuring liquidity generally. We present these supplemental measures because we believe that these measures provide investors and securities analysts with important supplemental information with which to evaluate our performance, long term earnings potential, or liquidity, as applicable, and to enable them to assess our performance on the same basis as management. These supplemental performance measurements may vary from and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures by other companies in our industry. Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Diluted EPS, and Free Cash Flow are not recognized measurements under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, and when analyzing our performance or liquidity, as applicable, investors should (i) evaluate each adjustment in our reconciliation of revenue to Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, operating income to Adjusted Operating Income, net income to Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share, and net cash provided by operating activities to Free Cash Flow, (ii) use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, and Adjusted Diluted EPS in addition to, and not as an alternative to, revenue, operating income, net income or diluted EPS, as measures of operating results, each as defined under GAAP and (iii) use Free Cash Flow in addition to, and not as an alternative to, net cash provided by operating activities as a measure of liquidity, each as defined under GAAP. We have defined the aforementioned non-GAAP measures as follows:
"Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses" represents revenue less billable expenses. We use Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses because it provides management useful information about the Company's operating performance by excluding the impact of costs that are not indicative of the level of productivity of our consulting staff headcount and our overall direct labor, which management believes provides useful information to our investors about our core operations.
"Adjusted Operating Income" represents operating income before (i) adjustments related to the amortization of intangible assets resulting from the acquisition of our Company by The Carlyle Group (the "Acquisition") and (ii) transaction costs, fees and losses, including fees associated with debt prepayments. We prepare Adjusted Operating Income to eliminate the impact of items we do not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary, or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature.
"Adjusted EBITDA” represents net income before income taxes, net interest and other expense and depreciation and amortization and before certain other items, including transaction costs, fees and losses, including fees associated with debt prepayments.“Adjusted EBITDA Margin” is calculated as Adjusted EBITDA divided by revenue. The Company prepares Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin to eliminate the impact of items it does not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature.
"Adjusted Net Income" represents net income before: (i) adjustments related to the amortization of intangible assets resulting from the Acquisition, (ii) transaction costs, fees and losses, including fees associated with debt prepayments, and (iii) amortization or write-off of debt issuance costs and write-off of original issue discount, in each case net of the tax effect where appropriate calculated using an assumed effective tax rate. We prepare Adjusted Net Income to eliminate the impact of items, net of tax, we do not consider indicative of ongoing operating performance due to their inherent unusual, extraordinary, or non-recurring nature or because they result from an event of a similar nature.

22




"Adjusted Diluted EPS" represents diluted EPS calculated using Adjusted Net Income as opposed to net income. Additionally, Adjusted Diluted EPS does not contemplate any adjustments to net income as required under the two-class method as disclosed in the footnotes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
"Free Cash Flow" represents the net cash generated from operating activities less the impact of purchases of property and equipment.
Below is a reconciliation of Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses, Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA Margin, Adjusted Net Income, Adjusted Diluted EPS, and Free Cash Flow to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Unaudited)
 
(Unaudited)
Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
1,499,914

 
$
1,404,638

 
$
4,535,569

 
$
4,222,213

Billable expenses
443,015

 
428,685

 
1,378,235

 
1,270,941

Revenue, Excluding Billable Expenses
$
1,056,899

 
$
975,953

 
$
3,157,334

 
$
2,951,272

Adjusted Operating Income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income
$
118,087

 
$
108,124

 
$
384,037

 
$
355,086

Amortization of intangible assets (a)

 
1,056

 

 
3,169

Transaction expenses (b)

 

 

 
3,354

Adjusted Operating Income
$
118,087

 
$
109,180

 
$
384,037

 
$
361,609

EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA & Adjusted EBITDA Margin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
69,773

 
$
55,590

 
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

Income tax expense
28,240

 
37,025

 
105,356

 
117,489

Interest and other, net (c)

20,074

 
15,509

 
58,455

 
51,360

Depreciation and amortization
16,701

 
14,410

 
48,196

 
43,588

EBITDA
134,788

 
122,534

 
432,233

 
398,674

Transaction expenses (b)

 

 

 
3,354

Adjusted EBITDA
$
134,788

 
$
122,534

 
$
432,233

 
$
402,028

Revenue
$
1,499,914

 
$
1,404,638

 
$
4,535,569

 
$
4,222,213

Adjusted EBITDA Margin
9.0
%

8.7
%

9.5
%

9.5
%
Adjusted Net Income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
69,773

 
$
55,590

 
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

Amortization of intangible assets (a)

 
1,056

 

 
3,169

Transaction expenses (b)

 

 

 
3,354

Amortization or write-off of debt issuance costs and write-off of original issue discount
672

 
669

 
1,993

 
8,236

Adjustments for tax effect (d)
(199
)
 
(690
)
 
(727
)
 
(5,904
)
Adjusted Net Income
$
70,246

 
$
56,625

 
$
221,492

 
$
195,092

Adjusted Diluted Earnings Per Share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average number of diluted shares outstanding
146,570,617

 
150,607,259

 
148,447,248

 
150,143,851

Adjusted Net Income Per Diluted Share (e)
$
0.48

 
$
0.38

 
$
1.49

 
$
1.30

Free Cash Flow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
68,858

 
$
65,959

 
$
246,920

 
$
283,042

Less: Purchases of property and equipment
(26,078
)
 
(15,411
)
 
(63,067
)
 
(30,554
)
Free Cash Flow
$
42,780

 
$
50,548

 
$
183,853

 
$
252,488

(a)
Reflects amortization of intangible assets resulting from the Acquisition for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2016 .
(b)
Reflects debt refinancing costs incurred in connection with the refinancing transaction consummated on July 13, 2016.

23




(c)
Reflects the combination of Interest expense and Other income (expense), net from the condensed consolidated statement of operations.
(d)
Periods related to fiscal 2017 reflect the tax effect of adjustments at an assumed effective tax rate of 40%. Beginning in the third quarter of fiscal 2018 with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "2017 Tax Act"), adjustments are reflected using an assumed effective tax rate of 36.5%. See Note 10, Income Taxes, to our accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for information.
(e)
Excludes an adjustment of approximately $0.6 million and $1.9 million of net earnings for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2017 , respectively, and excludes an adjustment of approximately $0.6 million and $2.0 million of net earnings for the three and nine months ended December 31, 2016 , respectively, associated with the application of the two-class method for computing diluted earnings per share.

24




Factors and Trends Affecting Our Results of Operations
Our results of operations have been, and we expect them to continue to be, affected by the following factors, which may cause our future results of operations to differ from our historical results of operations discussed under “— Results of Operations.”
Business Environment and Key Trends in Our Markets
We believe that the following trends and developments in the U.S. government services industry and our markets may influence our future results of operations:
uncertainty around the timing, extent, nature and effect of Congressional and other U.S. government actions to approve funding of the U.S. government beyond February 8, 2018, address budgetary constraints, including caps on the discretionary budget for defense and non-defense departments and agencies, as established by the Bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011 and subsequently adjusted by the American Tax Payer Relief Act of 2012, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, and address the ability of Congress to determine how to allocate the available budget authority and pass appropriations bills to fund both U.S. government departments and agencies that are, and those that are not, subject to the caps;
budget deficits and the growing U.S. national debt increasing pressure on the U.S. government to reduce federal spending across all federal agencies together with associated uncertainty about the size and timing of those reductions;
cost cutting and efficiency initiatives, current and future budget restrictions, continued implementation of Congressionally mandated automatic spending cuts and other efforts to reduce U.S. government spending could cause clients to reduce or delay funding for orders for services or invest appropriated funds on a less consistent or rapid basis or not at all, particularly when considering long-term initiatives and in light of current uncertainty around Congressional efforts to approve funding of the U.S. government beyond February 8, 2018 and to craft a long-term agreement on the U.S. government's ability to incur indebtedness in excess of its current limits and generally in the current political environment, there is a risk that clients will not issue task orders in sufficient volume to reach current contract ceilings, alter historical patterns of contract awards, including the typical increase in the award of task orders or completion of other contract actions by the U.S. government in the period before the end of the U.S. government's fiscal year on September 30, delay requests for new proposals and contract awards, rely on short-term extensions and funding of current contracts, or reduce staffing levels and hours of operation;
delays in the completion of future U.S. government’s budget processes, which have in the past and could in the future delay procurement of the products, services, and solutions we provide;
changes in the relative mix of overall U.S. government spending and areas of spending growth, with lower spending on homeland security, intelligence and defense-related programs as certain overseas operations end, and continued increased spending on cyber-security, Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), advanced analytics, technology integration and healthcare;
legislative and regulatory changes to limitations on the amount of allowable executive compensation permitted under flexibly priced contracts following implementation of interim rules adopted by federal agencies pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, which substantially further reduce the amount of allowable executive compensation under these contracts and extend these limitations to a larger segment of our executives and our entire contract base;
efforts by the U.S. government to address organizational conflicts of interest and related issues and the impact of those efforts on us and our competitors;
increased audit, review, investigation and general scrutiny by U.S. government agencies of government contractors' performance under U.S. government contracts and compliance with the terms of those contracts and applicable laws;
the federal focus on refining the definition of “inherently governmental” work, including proposals to limit contractor access to sensitive or classified information and work assignments, which will continue to drive pockets of insourcing in various agencies, particularly in the intelligence market;

25




negative publicity and increased scrutiny of government contractors in general, including us, relating to U.S. government expenditures for contractor services and incidents involving the mishandling of sensitive or classified information;
U.S. government agencies awarding contracts on a technically acceptable/lowest cost basis, which could have a negative impact on our ability to win certain contracts;
increased competition from other government contractors and market entrants seeking to take advantage of certain of the trends identified above, and an industry trend towards consolidation, which may result in the emergence of companies that are better able to compete against us;
cost cutting and efficiency and effectiveness efforts by U.S. civilian agencies with a focus on increased use of performance measurement, “program integrity” efforts to reduce waste, fraud and abuse in entitlement programs, and renewed focus on improving procurement practices for and interagency use of IT services, including through the use of cloud based options and data center consolidation;
restrictions by the U.S. government on the ability of federal agencies to use lead system integrators, in response to cost, schedule and performance problems with large defense acquisition programs where contractors were performing the lead system integrator role;
increasingly complex requirements of the Department of Defense and the U.S. Intelligence Community, including cyber-security, managing federal health care cost growth and focus on reforming existing government regulation of various sectors of the economy, such as financial regulation and healthcare;
increasing small business regulations across the Department of Defense and civilian agency clients continue to gain traction whereby agencies are required to meet high small business set aside targets, and large business prime contractors are required to subcontract in accordance with considerable small business participation goals necessary for contract award; and
changes in agency and mission priorities anticipated in the Department of Defense and Civilian agency landscape with the presidential and administration transition.
Sources of Revenue
Substantially all of our revenue is derived from services provided under contracts and task orders with the U.S. government, primarily by our consulting staff and, to a lesser extent, our subcontractors. Funding for our contracts and task orders is generally linked to trends in budgets and spending across various U.S. government agencies and departments. We provide services under a large portfolio of contracts and contract vehicles to a broad client base, and we believe that our diversified contract and client base lessens potential volatility in our business; however, a reduction in the amount of services that we are contracted to provide to the U.S. government or any of our significant U.S. government clients could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In particular, the Department of Defense is one of our significant clients, and the Budget Control Act of 2011 (as amended by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 and the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015), provides for automatic spending cuts (referred to as sequestration) totaling approximately $1.2 trillion between 2013 and 2021, including an estimated $500 billion in federal defense spending cuts over this time period. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 raised existing spending caps on defense spending by $15 billion for government fiscal 2017, but did not address spending caps beyond fiscal 2017. For example, under the Budget Control Act of 2011, as amended, approximately $91 billion in spending cuts are anticipated for the government fiscal 2018. A reduction in the amount of services that we are contracted to provide to the Department of Defense could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, and given the uncertainty of when and how these automatic reductions may be applied, we are unable to predict the nature or magnitude of the potential adverse effect.
Contract Types
We generate revenue under the following three basic types of contracts:
Cost-Reimbursable Contracts. Cost-reimbursable contracts provide for the payment of allowable costs incurred during performance of the contract, up to a ceiling based on the amount that has been funded, plus a fee. As we increase or decrease our spending on allowable costs, our revenue generated on cost-reimbursable contracts will increase, up to the ceiling and funded amounts, or decrease, respectively. We generate revenue under two general types of cost-reimbursable contracts: cost-plus-fixed-fee and cost-plus-award-fee, both of which reimburse allowable costs and provide for a fee. The fee under each type of cost-reimbursable contract is generally payable upon completion of services in accordance with the terms of the contract. Cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts offer no opportunity for payment beyond the fixed fee. Cost-plus-award-fee contracts also provide for an award fee that varies within specified limits based upon the client’s assessment of our

26




performance against a predetermined set of criteria, such as targets for factors like cost, quality, schedule, and performance.
Time-and-Materials Contracts. Under a time-and-materials contract, we are paid a fixed hourly rate for each direct labor hour expended, and we are reimbursed for billable material costs and billable out-of-pocket expenses inclusive of allocable indirect costs. To the extent our actual direct labor including allocated indirect costs, and associated billable expenses decrease or increase in relation to the fixed hourly billing rates provided in the contract, we will generate more or less profit, respectively, or could incur a loss.
Fixed-Price Contracts. Under a fixed-price contract, we agree to perform the specified work for a pre-determined price. To the extent our actual direct and allocated indirect costs decrease or increase from the estimates upon which the price was negotiated, we will generate more or less profit, respectively, or could incur a loss. Some fixed-price contracts have a performance-based component, pursuant to which we can earn incentive payments or incur financial penalties based on our performance. Fixed-price level of effort contracts require us to provide a specified level of effort (i.e., labor hours), over a stated period of time, for a fixed price.
The amount of risk and potential reward varies under each type of contract. Under cost-reimbursable contracts, there is limited financial risk, because we are reimbursed for all allowable costs up to a ceiling. However, profit margins on this type of contract tend to be lower than on time-and-materials and fixed-price contracts. Under time-and-materials contracts, we are reimbursed for the hours worked using the predetermined hourly rates for each labor category. In addition, we are typically reimbursed for other contract direct costs and expenses at cost. We assume financial risk on time-and-materials contracts because our labor costs may exceed the negotiated billing rates. Profit margins on well-managed time-and-materials contracts tend to be higher than profit margins on cost-reimbursable contracts as long as we are able to staff those contracts with people who have an appropriate skill set. Under fixed-price contracts, we are required to deliver the objectives under the contract for a pre-determined price. Compared to time-and-materials and cost-reimbursable contracts, fixed-price contracts generally offer higher profit margin opportunities because we receive the full benefit of any cost savings but generally involve greater financial risk because we bear the impact of any cost overruns. In the aggregate, the contract type mix in our revenue for any given period will affect that period's profitability. Changes in contract type as a result of re-competes and new business could influence the percentage/mix in unanticipated ways.
The table below presents the percentage of total revenue for each type of contract:
 
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017
 
2016
Cost-reimbursable (1)
51%
 
49%
 
51%
 
49%
Time-and-materials
25%
 
26%
 
25%
 
26%
Fixed-price (2)
24%
 
25%
 
24%
 
25%
 
(1)
Includes both cost-plus-fixed-fee and cost-plus-award-fee contracts.
(2)
Includes fixed-price level of effort contracts.
Contract Diversity and Revenue Mix
We provide services to our clients through a large number of single award contracts, contract vehicles, and multiple award contract vehicles. Most of our revenue is generated under indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity, or IDIQ, contract vehicles, which include multiple award government wide acquisition contract vehicles, or GWACs, and General Services Administration Multiple Award Schedule Contracts, or GSA schedules, and certain single award contracts. GWACs and GSA schedules are available to all U.S. government agencies. Any number of contractors typically compete under multiple award IDIQ contract vehicles for task orders to provide particular services, and we earn revenue under these contract vehicles only to the extent that we are successful in the bidding process for task orders.
We generate revenue under our contracts and task orders through our provision of services as both a prime contractor and subcontractor, as well as from the provision of services by subcontractors under contracts and task orders for which we act as the prime contractor. The mix of these types of revenue affects our operating margin. Substantially all of our operating margin is derived from direct consulting staff labor, as the portion of our operating margin derived from fees we earn on services provided by our subcontractors is not significant. We view growth in direct consulting staff labor as the primary driver of earnings growth. Direct consulting staff labor growth is driven by consulting staff headcount growth, after attrition, and total backlog growth.

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Our People
Revenue from our contracts is derived from services delivered by consulting staff and, to a lesser extent, from our subcontractors. Our ability to hire, retain, and deploy talent with skills appropriately aligned with client needs is critical to our ability to grow our revenue. We continuously evaluate whether our talent base is properly sized and appropriately compensated, and contains an optimal mix of skills to be cost competitive and meet the rapidly evolving needs of our clients. We seek to achieve that result through recruitment and management of capacity and compensation. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016 , we employed approximately 24,700 and 23,000 people, respectively, of which approximately 22,300 and 20,800 , respectively, were consulting staff.
Contract Backlog
We define backlog to include the following three components:
Funded Backlog. Funded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding is appropriated or otherwise authorized less revenue previously recognized on these contracts.
Unfunded Backlog. Unfunded backlog represents the revenue value of orders for services under existing contracts for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Priced Options. Priced contract options represent 100% of the revenue value of all future contract option periods under existing contracts that may be exercised at our clients’ option and for which funding has not been appropriated or otherwise authorized.
Backlog does not include any task orders under IDIQ contracts, except to the extent that task orders have been awarded to us under those contracts.
The following table summarizes the value of our contract backlog at the respective dates presented:  
 
As of
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
(In millions)
Backlog:
 
 
 
Funded
$
2,893

 
$
2,787

Unfunded
4,220

 
3,229

Priced options
9,558

 
7,511

Total backlog
$
16,671

 
$
13,527

Our backlog includes orders under contracts that in some cases extend for several years. The U.S. Congress generally appropriates funds for our clients on a yearly basis, even though their contracts with us may call for performance that is expected to take a number of years to complete. As a result, contracts typically are only partially funded at any point during their term and all or some of the work to be performed under the contracts may remain unfunded unless and until the U.S. Congress makes subsequent appropriations and the procuring agency allocates funding to the contract.
We view growth in total backlog and consulting staff headcount as the two key measures of our potential business growth. Growing and deploying consulting staff is the primary means by which we are able to achieve profitable revenue growth. To the extent that we are able to hire additional consulting staff and deploy them against funded backlog, we generally recognize increased revenue. Total backlog increased by 23.2% from December 31, 2016 to December 31, 2017 . Additions to funded backlog during the twelve months ended December 31, 2017 totaled $6.2 billion in comparison to $5.7 billion for the comparable period, as a result of the conversion of unfunded backlog to funded backlog, the award of new contracts and task orders under which funding was appropriated, and the exercise and subsequent funding of priced options. We report internally on our backlog on a monthly basis and review backlog upon occurrence of certain events to determine if any adjustments are necessary.
We cannot predict with any certainty the portion of our backlog that we expect to recognize as revenue in any future period and we cannot guarantee that we will recognize any revenue from our backlog. The primary risks that could affect our ability to recognize such revenue on a timely basis or at all are: program schedule changes, contract modifications, and our ability to assimilate and deploy new consulting staff against funded backlog; cost cutting initiatives and other efforts to reduce U.S. government spending, which could reduce or delay funding for orders for services; and delayed funding of our contracts due to delays in the completion of the U.S. government's budgeting process and the use of continuing resolutions by the U.S. government to fund its operations. The amount of our funded backlog is also subject to change, due to, among other factors:

28




changes in congressional appropriations that reflect changes in U.S. government policies or priorities resulting from various military, political, economic or international developments; changes in the use of U.S. government contracting vehicles; and the provisions therein used to procure our services and adjustments to the scope of services, or cancellation of contracts, by the U.S government at any time. In our recent experience, none of the following additional risks have had a material negative effect on our ability to realize revenue from our funded backlog: the unilateral right of the U.S government to cancel multi-year contracts and related orders or to terminate existing contracts for convenience or default: in the case of unfunded backlog, the potential that funding will not be made available; and, in the case of priced options, the risk that our clients will not exercise their options.
In addition, funded backlog includes orders under contracts for which the period of performance has expired, and we may not recognize revenue on the funded backlog that includes such orders due to, among other reasons, the tardy submission of invoices by our subcontractors and the expiration of the relevant appropriated funding in accordance with a pre-determined expiration date such as the end of the U.S. government's fiscal year. The revenue value of orders included in funded backlog that has not been recognized as revenue due to period of performance expirations has not exceeded approximately 7.7% of funded backlog as of the end of any of the four fiscal quarters preceding the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2017 .
We expect to recognize revenue from a substantial portion of funded backlog as of December 31, 2017 within the next twelve months. However, given the uncertainties discussed above, as well as the risks described in "Item 1A.Risk Factors" of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2017 , we can give no assurance that we will be able to convert our backlog into revenue in any particular period, if at all.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Costs associated with compensation and related expenses for our people are the most significant component of our operating costs and expenses. The principal factors that affect our costs are additional people as we grow our business and are awarded new contracts, task orders, and additional work under our existing contracts, and the hiring of people with specific skill sets and security clearances as required by our additional work.
Our most significant operating costs and expenses are described below.
Cost of Revenue . Cost of revenue includes direct labor, related employee benefits, and overhead. Overhead consists of indirect costs, including indirect labor relating to infrastructure, management and administration, and other expenses.
Billable Expenses. Billable expenses include direct subcontractor expenses, travel expenses, and other expenses incurred to perform on contracts.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses include indirect labor of executive management and corporate administrative functions, marketing and bid and proposal costs, legal expenses, and other discretionary spending.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization includes the depreciation of computers, leasehold improvements, furniture and other equipment, and the amortization of internally developed software, as well as third-party software that we use internally, and of identifiable long-lived intangible assets over their estimated useful lives.
Seasonality
The U.S. government's fiscal year ends on September 30 of each year. While not certain, it is not uncommon for U.S. government agencies to award extra tasks or complete other contract actions in the weeks before the end of its fiscal year in order to avoid the loss of unexpended fiscal year funds. In addition, we also have historically experienced higher bid and proposal costs in the months leading up to the U.S. government's fiscal year end as we pursue new contract opportunities being awarded shortly after the U.S. government fiscal year end as new opportunities are expected to have funding appropriated in the U.S. government's subsequent fiscal year. We may continue to experience this seasonality in future periods, and our future periods may be affected by it. While not certain, changes in the government's funding and spending patterns have altered historical seasonality trends, supporting our approach to managing the business on an annual basis.
Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies
There have been no material changes during the period covered by this Quarterly Report to the information disclosed in the Critical Accounting Estimates and Policies section in Part II, "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our Annual Report.

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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2 to our accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements for information related to our adoption of new accounting standards and for information on our anticipated adoption of recently issued accounting standards.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth items from our condensed consolidated statements of operations for the periods indicated:
 
Three Months Ended
December 31,
 
Percent
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
Percent
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
 
2017
 
2016
 
Change
 
(Unaudited)
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
(Unaudited)
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
 
(In thousands)
 
 
Revenue
$
1,499,914

 
$
1,404,638

 
6.8
 %
 
$
4,535,569

 
$
4,222,213

 
7.4
 %
Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of revenue
712,255

 
652,236

 
9.2
 %
 
2,111,702

 
1,967,258

 
7.3
 %
Billable expenses
443,015

 
428,685

 
3.3
 %
 
1,378,235

 
1,270,941

 
8.4
 %
General and administrative expenses
209,856

 
201,183

 
4.3
 %
 
613,399

 
585,340

 
4.8
 %
Depreciation and amortization
16,701

 
14,410

 
15.9
 %
 
48,196

 
43,588

 
10.6
 %
Total operating costs and expenses
1,381,827

 
1,296,514

 
6.6
 %
 
4,151,532

 
3,867,127

 
7.4
 %
Operating income
118,087

 
108,124

 
9.2
 %
 
384,037

 
355,086

 
8.2
 %
Interest expense
(20,604
)
 
(14,176
)
 
45.3
 %
 
(60,309
)
 
(46,757
)
 
29.0
 %
Other income (expense), net
530

 
(1,333
)
 
NM

 
1,854

 
(4,603
)
 
NM

Income before income taxes
98,013

 
92,615

 
5.8
 %
 
325,582

 
303,726

 
7.2
 %
Income tax expense
28,240

 
37,025

 
(23.7
)%
 
105,356

 
117,489

 
(10.3
)%
Net income
$
69,773

 
$
55,590

 
25.5
 %
 
$
220,226

 
$
186,237

 
18.3
 %
NM - Not meaningful
Three Months Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Three Months Ended December 31, 2016
Revenue
Revenue increased to $1,499.9 million from $1,404.6 million or a 6.8% increase, primarily due to increased client demand which led to increased client staff headcount, and an increase in client staff labor. Total headcount as of December 31, 2017 increased approximately 1,700 compared to December 31, 2016.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue increased to $712.3 million from $652.2 million , or a 9.2% increase. The increase was primarily due to increases in salaries and salary-related benefits of $51.4 million driven by increased headcount. Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue was 47.5% and 46.4% for the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
Billable Expenses
Billable expenses increased to $443.0 million from $428.7 million , or a 3.3% increase, primarily attributable to an increase in the use of subcontractors in the current year driven by client demand, as well as an increase in contracts which require the Company to incur direct expenses on behalf of clients over the prior year period. Billable expenses as a percentage of revenue were 29.5% and 30.5% for the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased to $209.9 million from $201.2 million , or an 4.3% increase, primarily due to increases in salaries and salary-related benefits of $14.9 million, driven by an increase in headcount growth as well as annual base salary increases, partially offset by lower incentive compensation of $3.1 million and decrease in business expenses of $1.7 million. General and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue was 14.0% for both the three months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 .

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Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased to $16.7 million from $14.4 million , or a 15.9% increase, primarily due to increases in intangible asset amortization related to the Company's acquisition of Aquilent in fiscal 2017, partially offset by a decrease in amortization of other amortizable intangible assets that fully amortized in fiscal 2017.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased to $20.6 million from $14.2 million , or a 45.3% increase, primarily as a result of interest expense related to the issuance of the Senior Notes (as defined below) in April 2017.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense decreased to $28.2 million from $37.0 million , or a 23.7% decrease. The effective tax rate decreased from 40.0% to 28.8% due to the blended federal tax rate benefit of the 2017 Tax Act. See Note 10 in our condensed consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information. The effective tax rate also decreased with the recognition of excess tax benefits of $1.0 million being reflected in earnings as a reduction to income tax expense in the third quarter of fiscal 2018. This was driven by the Company's initial adoption of new accounting guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 whereby excess tax benefits on employee share-based payment awards are now recognized in earnings as a reduction to income tax expense instead of as an adjustment to additional paid-in-capital, as was the case historically. See Notes 2 and 10 in our condensed consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information on how this accounting change could impact earnings in future periods.
Nine Months Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to Nine Months Ended December 31, 2016
Revenue
Revenue increased to $4,535.6 million from $4,222.2 million , or a 7.4% increase, primarily due to increased client demand which led to increased client staff headcount, and an increase in client staff labor. Total headcount as of December 31, 2017 increased approximately 1,700 compared to December 31, 2016. Growth in revenue was also due to an increase in billable expenses over the prior year period.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue increased to $2,111.7 million from $1,967.3 million , or a 7.3% increase. The increase was primarily due to increases in salaries and salary-related benefits of $129.8 million driven by increased headcount. Cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue was 46.6% for both the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 .
Billable Expenses
Billable expenses increased to $1,378.2 million from $1,270.9 million , or an 8.4% increase, primarily attributable to an increase in the use of subcontractors in the current year driven by client demand. In addition, contracts which require the Company to incur travel expenses on behalf of clients increased over the prior year period. Billable expenses as a percentage of revenue were 30.4% and 30.1% for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses increased to $613.4 million from $585.3 million , or a 4.8% increase, primarily due to increases in salaries and salary-related benefits of $32.1 million, driven by headcount growth as well as annual base salary increases, and increases in business expenses of $3.3 million, partially offset by lower incentive compensation of $8.9 million. General and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenue were 13.5% and 13.9% for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased to $48.2 million from $43.6 million , or a 10.6% increase, primarily due to increases in intangible asset amortization related to the Company's acquisition of Aquilent in fiscal 2017, partially offset by a decrease in amortization of other amortizable intangible assets that fully amortized in fiscal 2017.
Interest Expense
Interest expense increased to $60.3 million from $46.8 million , or a 29.0% increase, primarily as a result of interest expense related to the issuance of the Senior Notes in April 2017.

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Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense decreased to $105.4 million from $117.5 million , or a 10.3% decrease. The effective tax rate decreased from 38.7% to 32.4% due to the blended federal tax rate benefit of the 2017 Tax Act. See Note 10 in our condensed consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information. The effective tax rate also decreased with the recognition of excess tax benefits of $10.3 million being reflected in earnings as a reduction to income tax expense for the nine months ended December 31, 2017 . This was driven by the Company's initial adoption of new accounting guidance in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 whereby excess tax benefits on employee share-based payment awards are now recognized in earnings as a reduction to income tax expense instead of as an adjustment to additional paid-in-capital, as was the case historically. See Notes 2 and 10 in our condensed consolidated financial statements in this Form 10-Q for additional information on how this accounting change could impact earnings in future periods.

Liquidity and Indebtedness
The following table presents selected financial information as of December 31, 2017 and March 31, 2017 and for the first nine months of fiscal 2018 and 2017 :
 
December 31,
2017
 
March 31,
2017
 
(Unaudited)
 

 
(In thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents
$
289,495

 
$
217,417

Total debt
1,832,315

 
1,663,324

 
 
 
 
 
Nine Months Ended
December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
(Unaudited)
 
(Unaudited)
 
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities
$